Seismic Attributes of Carbonate Reservoirs

Seismic Attributes of Carbonate Reservoirs
Product Code: Geo Short Courses
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Instructor: Dr. Kurt Marfurt (University of Houston)

Date & Time: June 11th - June 15th, 8am - 4:30pm

Course description: A seismic attribute is any measure of seismic data that helps us better visualize or quantify features of interpretation interest. Seismic attributes fall into two broad categories – those that help us quantify the morphological component of seismic data and those that help us quantify the reflectivity and kinematic components of seismic data. The morphological attributes help us extract information on reflector dip, azimuth, shape, and terminations, which can in turn be related to faults, channels, fractures, karst, and carbonate buildups. The reflectivity and kinematic attributes help us extract information on reflector amplitude, waveform, and variation with illumination angle, which can in turn be related to dolomite vs. limestone, reservoir thickness, fracture density and azimuth, and the present-day stress field. In the reconnaissance mode, 3D seismic attributes help us to rapidly identify structural features and depositional environments. In the reservoir characterization mode, 3D seismic attributes are calibrated against real and simulated well data to identify hydrocarbon accumulations and reservoir compartmentalization.

In this course, we will gain an intuitive understanding of the kinds of seismic features that can be identified by 3D seismic attributes, the sensitivity of seismic attributes to seismic acquisition and processing, and of how 'independent' seismic attributes can are coupled through geology. We will also discuss alternative workflows using seismic attributes for reservoir characterization as implemented by modern commercial software and practiced by interpretation service companies. Participants are invited to bring case studies from their workplace which demonstrate either the success or failure of seismic attributes to stimulate class discussion.

Course outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Complex trace, horizon and formation attributes
  3. Color display and 3D visualization
  4. Spectral decomposition and thin bed tuning
    1. Mapping unconformities
  5. Volumetric dip and azimuth
    1. Angular unconformities
  6. Coherence
  7. Volumetric curvature
    1. The shape index
    2. Volumetric rose diagrams
  8. Lateral changes in amplitude
    1. Sobel filter similarity
    2. Amplitude gradients
  9. The gray-level co-occurence matrix (GLCM) and seismic textures
  10. Structure-oriented filtering and image enhancement
  11. Attribute illumination of carbonate structural deformation and geomorphology
    1. Tectonic deformation
    2. Carbonate deposition environments
      1. Reefs and bioherms
      2. Chalk reservoirs
      3. Chert reservoirs
      4. Karst and diagenetic alteration
      5. Hydrothermally-altered dolomite
    3. Clastic depositional environments – attribute expression of other features in the section
    4. Geomorphology of igneous intrusive and extrusive features
    5. Reservoir heterogeneity
  12. Impact of data quality on seismic attributes
    1. Velocities and statics
    2. Acquisition footprint
    3. Seismic migration
  13. Velocity anisotropy and amplitude vs. azimuth (AVAz)
  14. Microseismic experiments as a means to map the hydraulic fracturing
  15. Attributes applied to offset- and azimuth-limited volumes
  16. Multiattribute analysis tools
  17. Inversion for acoustic and elastic impedance
  18. Reservoir characterization workflows
  19. 3D texture analysis

Most courses are taught on the University of Houston Campus, in Social Work Bldg. Room SW 219.

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